If you’re trying to keep track of the events leading up to the current conflict between Israel and Hamas, I’m recommending the following timeline by Emily Hauser which was posted by Robert Wright at the Atlantic, and which I’m posting below. Wright is hardly an Israel flack, so I’m willing to trust his judgment on this. I’m not so interested as he is in trying to figure out who “started” this most recent fighting. But it gives you a very good sense as to how things have unfolded over the two weeks prior to the outbreak of massive fighting and especially the one week or so prior to it.
What I get from the timeline is confirmation that the hair-triggers were not so much the vicious circle involved in the uptick of Hamas shelling of Israeli towns in the south and Israeli reprisals over the calendar year 2012, and more Hamas shelling, etc. This provides the context, to which I would also add the uptick of attacks by non-Hamas terrorists who crossed into Israel from the Sinai desert, and who, it was suspected, came originally from Hamas controlled Gaza. But it does little to explain why Israel decided to respond now, in November, as opposed to over the summer, or last spring, or sometime next year. As for the political machinations, as to why all this should be happening now, Hauser says nothing. Her focus is on events on the ground.
If you’re looking for the more active trigger, I would point to the Hamas attacks on Israeli military targets on November 8 and November 10, involving the blowing up of a tunnel underneath an Israeli jeep operating across the border along the seam inside Gaza and then the attack on the IDF jeep on the Israeli side of the border. These have to do with a very local struggle over a 1000 meter security seam that Israel is trying to maintain inside Gaza as a way to push back Hamas military presence off the border. When they occurred they got no or little notice in the American press, and a reader of the Israeli press could have also passed over the story. In retrospect, I think it set the whole thing off.
I think it’s probably the case that governing bodies like the Israeli government and Hamas get more agitated when their military assets are attacked than when civilian populations suffer casualties. In might be also that in conflict zones like Israel/Palestine that large bodies of the population get more agitated when soldier-fighters are attacked. That’s why Israel went nuts over the Shalit abduction, orchestrated by Jabari, why the Israeli government responded the way it did over the attacks on November 8 and 10, and why Hamas and people in Gaza were so upset by the killing of Jabari. By the time Hamas expressed willingness to call a truce on Monday and Tuesday, November 12 and 13, it was probably too little, too late (and even then, there was intermittent shelling).
If I were to conclude anything, it would be that the fight has to do with territory, population, and, most of all, “sovereignty.” It has anything to do with people and their actual lives only indirectly. About this universal political “fact,” I wouldn’t begin to moralize. It’s the way of the world.
At any rate, here is Emily Hauser as her timeline appears in Wright’s post at the Atlantic:
A summary of events in the renewal of Israeli-Palestinian hostilities, Nov 8 – Nov 15
Recent events in Israel and the Gaza Strip have been unusual only in scope. Violence and fear of violence is a near-daily reality for the residents of Gaza and Israel’s southern communities. There’s a constant back and forth, and on both sides, there’s always something or someone to avenge.
For instance, some Palestinian sources date the start of this latest round of violence back to November 4, when Reuters reported the death of “an unarmed, mentally unfit man” who strayed too near the border fence, did not respond to reported Israeli warnings, and was then shot. Palestinian medics report that Israeli security personnel prevented them from attending to the man for a couple of hours, and say that he likely died as a result.
But it’s genuinely impossible to date today’s hostilities conclusively to one incident or another; even the “two-week lull” that some outlets have said preceded Nov. 8 (when the timeline below begins) was, according to Reuters “a period of increased tensions at the Israel-Gaza frontier, with militants often firing rockets at Israel and Israel launching aerial raids targeting Palestinian gunmen.”
According to Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as of November 13, Palestinian militants had fired 797 rockets into Israel in the course of 2012 , and according to the Israeli human rights organization Btselem, between January 2009 (the conclusion of the last all-out Gaza war) and September of this year, 25 Israelis were killed by Palestinians, and 314 Palestinians were killed by Israeli security forces, with six more being killed by Israeli civilians.
Thursday, November 8
In an exchange of fire on the border of Gaza with militants from the Popular Resistance Committees (PRC), Israeli forces killed a 12 year old (or 13 year old ) Palestinian boy. “The PRC said it had confronted an Israeli force of four tanks and a bulldozer involved in a short-range incursion beyond Israel’s border fence with the Gaza Strip.” Later, Palestinian fighters blew up a tunnel along the Gaza-Israel border, injuring one Israeli soldier. Reuters
Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs reported the incident as follows: “An IDF [Israeli military] engineering force located a number of powerful explosive devices to the west of the fence. After the IDF disarmed charges found on the Gaza side of the border, and were repairing the border fence, explosives in an underground tunnel were detonated, causing a large explosion…damaging a jeep and lightly injuring a soldier.”Israeli MFA
Saturday, November 10
An IDF force patrolling near the border, inside Israel, was hit by an anti-tank missile fired from inside the Gaza Strip. Two soldiers were seriously injured. MFA
In retaliation, Israeli tanks fired into Gaza, killing four Palestinians; Palestinian fighters retaliated in turn with rockets into Israel; an Israeli air strike targeted a rocket crew, & killed a militant. “Popular Resistance Committees, said it had fired rockets at communities close to the border and the towns of Sderot and Netivot in southern Israel, in what it called ‘the revenge invoice’ for the deaths in Gaza.” The IDF reports that “over the past few hours, 25 rockets fired from the Gaza Strip hit southern Israel.” Reuters
In addition to the four Palestinians killed immediately by Israeli fire, 38 were injured, one of them dying on November 13. As a result of additional Israeli artillery fire that day, 11 Palestinians, including a 10 year old child, were also injured. An Israeli drone fired a missile at members of the armed wing of Islamic Jihad in north Gaza, killing one militant. Palestinian Center for Human Rights
Sunday, November 11
Israeli government reports four civilians injured in rocket fire from Gaza; Israeli attacks result in one Palestinian civilian killed and dozens injured. Institute for Middle East Understanding
Sixty-four rockets and several mortars were fired into Israel; two Israeli homes hit directly. “A number of Israeli civilians were wounded by the rocket fire, although not seriously; several were treated for shock and there was extensive property damage.” MFA
Ynet reported that over 100 Qassam rockets, mortar shells and Grads fired from Gaza into Israel in the course of 24 hours; the Israeli air force “struck several terror hubs in the Strip.” Ynet
A Palestinian civilian was injured by Israeli artillery fire, and a militant killed in drone strike.PCHR
Monday November 12
Israeli warplanes opened fire on three different Gaza targets between the hours of 2:20 and 3:20 am; no casualties reported. PCHR
In the morning, damage was done to a private home inside Israel when a rocket hit its yard. A ceramics factory was later hit, and that evening, two rockets were intercepted by Israel’s “Iron Dome” defense system. MFA
At 9:07 PM, HaAretz reported that “The representatives of Palestinian militant groups in the Gaza Strip announced an agreement to hold their fire on Monday, following days of persistent rocket attacks…. However a matter of minutes later, two rockets [exploded] in open fields near [the southern town of] Sderot. No casualties or damage reported.” HaAretz
Tuesday November 13
Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh praised Gaza’s main militant groups in Gaza for agreeing to the truce: “They showed a high sense of responsibility by saying they would respect calm should the Israeli occupation also abide by it,” he said.” Reuters
A rocket exploded in an open area in Ashdod. MFA
Wednesday November 14
Reports emerged that Israel has targeted Ahmed Jabari, head of Hamas’s military wing; Israel confirmed the assassination, citing his “decade-long terrorist activity,” and said that killing was the part of an operation in which the military struck 20 different targets across Gaza. HaAretz[Note: Later reports indicate that Jabari was considering a permanent truce agreement at the time of his assassination]
Over the course of the day, Israeli strikes killed 8 Palestinians, leaving 90 injured. The dead include a 65 year old man, a pregnant 19 year old, a 7 year old girl, and an 11 month old boy. Ma’an News Agency
At 10:17 PM, HaAretz summarized the day’s rocket attacks: 60 rockets fired, of which the Iron Dome defense system intercepted 17; later entries for that night show another 12 rockets, some of them intercepted. HaAretz
One rocket hit an Israeli shopping center, damaging stores and a vehicle. MFA
Thursday November 15
At 6:45 AM, HaAretz summarized the early morning in Israel: “Throughout the night some 25 rockets fired from Gaza toward Israel; since the beginning of Operation Pillar of Defense 104 rockets have been fired toward Israel; 28 people suffer anxiety; two lightly wounded.”
At 6:50 AM HaAretz reported: “Three Hamas operatives killed in two separate Israel Air Forces airstrikes…. Israel Defense Forces strikes in the Gaza Strip throughout the night leave 15 wounded.”
At 7:32 AM, HaAretz reported that “According to a military source, overnight strikes in Gaza damage a substantial portion of Hamas’ long-range missile infrastructure.”
HaAretz reported that three Israelis were killed in Kiryat Malachi, about 20 miles north of Gaza, after more than a dozen more rockets were fired over the course of the morning and one hit the apartment building in which the Israelis had lived. HaAretz
Three Israeli civilians killed [as reported by HaAretz above]; two others seriously injured, one boy moderately injured, and two babies lightly injured. Elsewhere, rockets also struck a residence and a school. MFA
At 7:23 PM, HaAretz reported that the Israeli military reports striking 250 sites in Gaza since the start of the current operation, during which time 274 rockets had been fired at Israel, 105 of them intercepted .
At 9:50 PM, Israel reported having hit an additional 70 targets in Gaza.
At 11:00 PM, HaAretz reported that “according to Hamas figures, 16 Palestinians have been killed and 151 wounded in Gaza since the start of Operation Pillar of Defense (on Nov. 14). Hamas says it has fired 527 rockets at Israel, while Islamic Jihad has fired 138.” HaAretz
At midnight, Ma’an reported that “on Thursday, Israel killed 11 Palestinians in Gaza[presumably including the 3 Hamas operatives noted above], including two toddlers, and militants returned fire killing three Israelis [as reported above by HaAretz et. al.] in a rocket attack on southern Israel. Islamic Jihad fired a Fajr missile at Tel Aviv [Israel’s cultural center, and the farthest any rocket had ever been fired] and Hamas said it downed an Israeli reconnaissance drone over eastern Gaza.” Ma’an
Note: I depended on a variety of sources to prepare this timeline because none, other than Reuters, can be considered strictly “objective” in the conflict – each comes from within the societies that have been at war with each other for decades, and as Americans learned during the Gulf War, that can lead venerable NGOs or news organizations to err on the side of national loyalty, even if unintentionally (and of course, Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a direct party to the conflict).
Emily L. Hauser is an American-Israeli writer. She lived in Tel Aviv for 14 years and has studied and written about the contemporary Middle East for 25; she writes for Open Zion on The Daily Beast, and also at her own blog. She can be followed on Twitter at @emilylhauser.
I sent this blog to an Egyptian friend and found his reply to be instructive and sympathetic (more on the more recent posts about sympathy to follow):
“Backing up, I don’t think it matters who technically started it because the Palestinians have no control over the situation, in other words, they don’t make any of the rules, they react to their reality. Even when they think they are acting, they are only reacting and more likely increasing the precariousness of their situation, like being caught in quicksand. They have no power to change their situation by action or inaction because nothing they do or don’t do changes their situation. Their only possible power is to affect the conscience of their oppressors which again is achieved neither by their action or inaction, though perhaps by time if it is not too late. Who then will pull them out of this hole? It can only be the Israelis; it is on their conscience to do it, raise their neighbors out of the situation they have put them in. Who is going to wake the Israelis up? It cannot be the Palestinians. They must wake up for themselves for the sake of themselves and with the help of whomever they might possibly trust to tell them to tell them the truth.”
Dear Jonathan: Thanks so much to you and your friend for the incredible post. I think he or she is spot on, and would only add the following. I’m beginning to think that it’s only Egypt and PM Morsi who are going to be able to do the work involved in waking up Israel and Hamas to some basic truths. Let’s assume that Israel-Gaza is an Egyptian national interest, and let’s also assume that Egyptian sovereignty in the Sinai is a combined Egyptian-Israeli interest. This means that sooner than later, let’s hope, Egypt will refuse to let itself remain hostage to this ugly dispute between its two tiny neighbors. Unlike Mubarak, it might be the case that the Muslim Brotherhood, now in power, right next door to the conflict, will actually want to settle this once and for all in such a way that meets its own national interest, in a truly diplomatic way.